Week 7 Learning Activity 2

Comparison of COI Framework and Five-Stage Model

The COI framework is theoretical, whereas the Five Stage Model is practical. The COI framework provides structured guidance on how to learn and teach through a collaborative process, whereas the five-stage model has activities listed under each of its stages that will guide students to gain hands-on experience by engaging in the process. Furthermore, while the five-stage model enhances connection through tasks, the COI framework focuses on personal perspectives and knowledge. Under the COI framework, the cognition presence focuses on critical thinking, the social presence focuses on communication, and the teaching presence focuses on facilitation. Regardless of the focus, all three sections provide us with techniques to make collaborative decisions, learn from one another, share different perspectives, and develop new ideas. The five-stage model provides more in-depth activities, and depending on the stage in the teaching process, students will get to participate in a handful of activities that promote their ability to learn while connecting virtually.


Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks , 11(1), 61-72. Retrieved from “https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ842688.pdf”

Salmon, G. (2006). 80:20 for e-moderators. In The challenge of ecompetence in academic staff development . CELT, NUI Galway, Galway, Republic of Ireland, pp. 145-154. Retrieved from “https://eprints.usq.edu.au/18862/2/Salmon_Ch16_2006_PV.pdf”

Week 6 Activity 3 – Draft Online Design Plan

Course Title: Therapeutic Communication Skills in Mental Health

Description of Online Teaching and Learning Experience

This course prepares nursing students to communicate therapeutically while working with the mental health population. Mental health is prevalent in healthcare, and the likelihood of people with a mental illness being admitted to medical wards has increased (Avery et al., 2020).. Nurses must acquire specialized communication skills to provide holistic care. The virtual format offers an opportunity for student nurses to apply theory to practice in an online environment. 

Situational Factors

This course will consist of six third-semester nursing students per session to ensure each student has sufficient time to practice applying their skills and gather feedback. The course will run for two hours once a week for six weeks. Students will have the opportunity to review the theory, apply practical skills and end with a debrief. Mental health scenarios will be carried out by actors, providing students with the opportunity to strengthen their communication skills. Students in the program should be familiar with basic concepts in mental health and be emotionally ready to have enriching conversations that can be triggering for some individuals. The course can be anxiety-provoking; hence, it is not designed to penalize students for not speaking a particular way. Instead, it promotes a safe space to think critically, rationalize and try out new communication strategies that may or may not be effective. Instructors must be mental health nurses with at least two years of experience in the mental health field. 

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course, students will have learned strategies to converse in a shutdown interview. Students will have practiced how to de-escalate an agitated person verbally. Students will be able to assess a patient with schizophrenia who is actively preoccupied. Lastly, students can differentiate which non-verbal cues are used therapeutically and which cues they should refrain from. 

Online Assessment Strategy

Students will apply their practical skills through a virtual role-play simulation, followed by immediate feedback from peers and instructors. Additionally, students will write an APA paper on their goals worth 25%, write a midterm exam worth 30%, write a self-reflection paper worth 30%, actively participate in class discussion and provide peer feedback, worth 15%. 

Teaching and Learning Activities

  • Review case study scenarios as a group to know what to expect in the simulation
  • Discuss theory on content for the week by reviewing questions students answered at home with their pre-readings
  • Participate in role-play simulation to practice the application of therapeutic communication skills
  • Provide immediate feedback to students and expect students to provide feedback to their peers
  • Complete course assignments consisting of academic papers and a midterm exam


The theory provides students with foundational knowledge on diagnosis, presentations and why specific communication skills are encouraged in different scenarios. The case studies will demonstrate an overall picture of the client’s presentation. The role-play simulations will allow students to apply theory to practice. Students will actively engage with actors acting as clients to become familiar with what a real-life situation can comprise. Assessments and feedback from peers and instructors will keep students on track to meet the learning outcomes. 


Avery, J., Schreier, A., & Swanson, M. (2020). A complex population: Nurse’s professional preparedness to care for medical-surgical patients with mental illness. Applied Nursing Research, 52. https://doi-org.ezproxy.tru.ca/10.1016/j.apnr.2020.151232

Dee Fink, L. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning. Retrieved from “http://www.deefinkandassociates.com/GuidetoCourseDesignAug05.pdf

Shea, S.C. (2017). Psychiatric interviewing: The art of understanding (3rd ed.). Elsevier.

Week 5 Learning Activity 2

Step 1 Worksheet Guide

Specific Context of the Teaching/Learning Situation: How many students are in the class? Is the course lower division, upper division, or graduate level? How long and frequent are the class meetings? How will the course be delivered: live, online, or in a classroom or lab? What physical elements of the learning environment will affect the class?

The class will include approximately 8 students so that each student gets enough time to practice their communication skills, and enriched feedback can be provided as there is more time to assess each student thoroughly. This course is for students enrolled in the nursing program. The class meeting will be 1 hour, starting with a theory on the topic for the week, then hands-on practice and ending with a debrief. The course can be delivered in class, but for the purpose of this assignment, it will be delivered online. One physical element that can affect the class is where the student chooses to participate (ex., Sitting on a bed is unprofessional compared to sitting on a chair).

General Context of the Learning Situation: What learning expectations are placed on this course or curriculum by the university, college and/or department? the profession? Society?

Someone with the same diagnosis can present differently; hence, students should demonstrate adaptability in their communication style to benefit that specific patient. Additionally, students should leave the course feeling familiar with how to use their therapeutic use of self when working with the mental health population. The student should be able to verbally de-escalate a patient with aggression, which will be played by an actor at a level that is appropriate for student nurses.

Nature of the Subject: Is this subject primarily theoretical, practical, or a combination? Is the subject convergent or divergent? Are there essential changes or controversies occurring within the field?

The course combines theory and practice but primarily focuses on applying the practical skills. The subject is divergent as psychiatry is a grey area where it is difficult to treat patients in one specific way; hence, students should become creative with their communication skills.

Characteristics of the Learners What is the life situation of the learners (e.g., working, family, professional goals)? What prior knowledge, experiences, and initial feelings do students usually have about this subject? What are their learning goals, expectations, and preferred learning styles? 

Students in the program have goals to become a registered nurse. While in the program, students may have family responsibilities and be working. Students should be familiar with the different mental health diagnoses and their signs and symptoms and have experience in a tertiary mental health facility from previous semesters. Students are typically anxious to ‘present’ in the course; however, come out with increased confidence.

Characteristics of the Teacher What beliefs and values does the teacher have about teaching and learning? What is his/her attitude toward: the subject? students? What level of knowledge or familiarity does s/he have with this subject? What are his/her strengths in teaching?

The teacher believes that all students have personal experiences, strengths and weaknesses that impact their communication strategies. The instructor is a nurse and has lived experience in using various communication skills and witnessing both positive and negative techniques from colleagues. This is a learning experience for students; there is not one correct way of showcasing their skills; as long as students can think critically and rationalize their decisions, the instructor will be satisfied. The instructor’s strength in teaching is that they like to keep the class engaged through a conversational method instead of direction-focused. The instructor encourages sharing personal experiences and is flexible in making necessary changes in the course that benefit student learning. 

Activity Questions

How might the information gathered through this step help you to design your online learning experience?

The information gathered can help me better understand what is essential and beneficial from the course. This will help me further decide how I organize and categorize information so that instructions are clear, simple and easy to follow. The information will also encourage me to question how I can improve my current content. 

How do you think the situational factors might influence design for the online environment versus the face-to-face classroom?

Regarding the situational factors, the learning goals will remain the same; however, because students engage online via Zoom, they might not feel “connected” or “real” with their interactions. For example, many frontline nurses work in direct contact with patients, so their ability to connect is done physically; however, in this course, the patients will be actors, so perhaps the authenticity might be impacted. Teaching and learning activities will be difficult to adjust as there is a structure in which topics to focus for the week, whereas in a physical environment, the instructor could gather feedback and make changes on the spot if the design allows. Feedback and assessment will continue to occur; however, due to technical issues (staggering, audio, wifi stability), information might get missed and/or not be projected clearly.


Dee Fink, L. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning . Retrieved from “http://www.deefinkandassociates.com/GuidetoCourseDesignAug05.pdf”

Week 4 Learning Activity 3 – Instructional Design Model Reflection

The online course I am auditing is ‘Understanding Depression and Low Mood in Young People.’ The ADDIE model is often used for online courses due to its organization and relevancy (Bates & Bates, 2015). The five-step process ensures learning objectives, course content, mode of delivery, assessments, and activities are all valuable to meet learner goals (Bates & Bates, 2015). In the analysis phase of my course audit, the learning objectives were outlined in week one. The course is designed for those working with a younger population in medical and/or school settings. The course is also for parents of children who are experiencing depression and for those who want to gain beginner knowledge in this field (FutureLearn, 2022). In week one, the course disclaims that it is not meant for treatment and that all teachings should be individualized, not generalized (FutureLearn, 2022). In the design phase, this course offers many activities and assessments. For example, week 2 includes an “ACE” activity, which learners are encouraged to complete to reflect on their activities for the week and how they felt (FutureLearn, 2022). Additionally, an assessment instrument such as quizzes is used. Weeks 2 and 3 have a quiz at the end of each week’s topic to test the learners’ knowledge (FutureLearn, 2022). The ‘develop’ phase is evident as the course is available on an online website called “Future Learn,” which is made available for free to those who wish to learn on online platforms. The course lacks an ‘evaluation’ portion as ADDIE models typically have. I would have included an evaluation section at the end of the course, improving learning for future students through feedback.


FutureLearn. (2022, October 25). https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/depression-young-people/8/steps/1723859

Bates, A. W. (Tony), & Bates, A. W. (2015, April 5). 4.3 the addie model. Teaching in a Digital Age. https://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/chapter/6-5-the-addie-model/

Week 3: Activity 6 Online Teaching and Learning Context

I would like to create an online design for a therapeutic relations course in nursing programs. The course focuses on practicing communication and assessing people with mental illness. In nursing programs, students are not adequately trained in their mental health rotation. The constructivism theory guides this simulation-based learning (Ally, 2008). For example, students could play the nurse role via Zoom, and we would have an actor join us presenting with a mental health crisis (e.g., a person actively responding to internal stimuli or becoming agitated). The instructor would let the students know the scenario and watch as they worked on applying and building their knowledge through the simulation experience. A debrief would be held at the end of the session to explore the student’s feelings about the situation and what they would list as their strengths and weaknesses. Additionally, visual tools such as videos can be linked in weekly designs so students can see how other professionals handle those situations. Students can also have opportunities to record themselves and upload them for instructors and peers to watch through multimedia tools to further guide their learning. Similarly, connectivism theory can be applied to this design because it focuses on the connection between humans and objects (Siemens, 2005). In the same example, the feedback will be diverse as each student may respond to the same situation differently, which would help the student acquire new communication techniques from their peers. Students would be able to connect the concept to their simulation because what they are practicing to apply is based on what they have learned in theory. Lastly, connectivisms principle on decision-making would apply to this course because how the student responded to the scenario is a decision-making process, which helps teach them in itself.


Ally, M. (2008). Foundations of educational theory for online learning. In Anderson, T. (Ed.). The theory and practice of online learning (pp.15-44). Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from “http://www.aupress.ca/books/120146/ebook/01_Anderson_2008-Theory_and_Practice_of_Online_Learning.pdf” \h

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International journal of instructional technology and distance learning , 2 (1), 3-10.

Week 2 Activity 6: Philosophy and Reflections Post


I agree that the pedagogical role is highly ranked in most cases because it focuses primarily on knowledge and instruction taught through various methods and seeks to support students throughout the process. The pedagogical role goals are the same in online and face-to-face teaching, but the approach differs. For example, discussion boards and break-out rooms encourage discussion in an online environment, whereas face-to-face discussions are promoted on the spot within the physical setting. Secondly, supporting individual learning online is challenging because instructors cannot see whether students grasp the content or are interested in it as they usually would in a physical setting from reading facial expressions. Furthermore, students likely have to set up meeting times online to receive individualistic support, whereas, in a physical setting, they can ask questions during break or after class. Additionally, motivating students online differs from encouraging students in person because the energy might not come off the same way, as we lack warmth, comfort, and connection in an online setting. In both cases, the material is designed strategically to best support students and feedback is provided regularly, but ultimately, the tools are used differently. 


My teaching philosophy is to remain flexible, approachable, inclusive and creative. When I share content with my students, I want them to learn from different resources (games, videos, guest speakers) to keep the class engaged and meet the different learning styles for students (visual, auditory, kinesthetic). Students will have varying emotions, experiences, and strengths in their online courses, making it essential to remain approachable so that they can share their concerns comfortably and feel supported throughout the process. I hope to lead by example, especially as a nurse, because I cannot expect the same from students if I do not feel confident about the knowledge I share or show. Teaching online and/or in person does not differ drastically. At the end of the day, both ways of teaching should enhance critical thinking, share valuable content in a clear manner and make the learning environment positive and supportive.


Bailie, J. L. (2011). Effective online instructional competencies as perceived by online university faculty and students: A sequel study. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7 (1), 82. Retrieved from “http://jolt.merlot.org/vol7no1/bailie_0311.pdf”

Carleton University. (2017). Teaching Online and Teaching Face-to-Face [Video file]. Retrieved from “https://mediaspace.carleton.ca/media/Teaching+Online+and+Teaching+Face-to-Face/0_cor94y41”

Carril, P. C. M., Sanmamed, M. G., & Sellés, N. H. (2013). Pedagogical roles and competencies of university teachers practicing in the e-learning environment. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning , 14 (3), 462-487. Retrieved from  “http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1477”

University of Saskatchewan. (2012). Teaching online vs. face-to-face [Video file]. Retrieved from “https://youtu.be/KGERvPmGLd4”

Week 2 Learning Activity 4: Online Instructor Skills & Competencies

Week 2 Learning Activity 1: Online Versus Face-to-Face Teaching

Both videos provided a thorough explanation of the differences between online teaching and face-to-face teaching. An additional difference not explicitly explained in the videos was the increased instructor diversity. For example, for courses entirely taught online, there are higher chances of faculty being hired from across the globe who do not have to live close to the physical institution. Diversity provides students a rich learning experience based on different cultural practices and enhances connection and belonging. Additionally, the types of resources used to teach are different. For example, online teaching has endless software, databases, and learning sites that can be used compared to physical textbooks, printouts and whiteboards.

Week 1, Topic 1, Activity 3 – Vision of Online Teaching and Learning

My vision of defining online teaching and learning aligns with Joksimovic and colleagues (2015) in that the Internet is used to teach and learn through various instructional platforms. The online world encompasses various methods of instruction, such as blended learning, asynchronous and/or synchronous. Personally, I feel that online learning and teaching provide flexibility due to the ability to sign in from anywhere around the world. People can engage in self-paced learning and/or physically tune in at particular times. Furthermore, not all courses are instructor-led, empowering individuals to take charge of their own learning. Online learning and teaching provide options to read articles virtually and/or print them for those who prefer hard copies. Additionally, resources such as videos, podcasts, and online games (Kahoot) make the experience fun and engaging. 

Despite being a learner who prefers in-person instruction, I have more opportunities to learn online. For example, I use social media such as Instagram regularly. I’m able to gather valuable information from experts just by scrolling on an online app. 

During COVID-19, I was in nursing school, giving me first-hand experience at the challenges associated with the immediate change to online learning. I understand that anything new and different requires time, adaptability and adjustment. I found myself struggling to focus during online instruction and lacked motivation to ‘learn’; it became more of an opportunity to simply finish the assignments. As time progressed, I began to appreciate the flexibility, the self-sufficiency and the resilience I built through online learning. 

EDDL5141 Week 1, Topic 4 – Course Audit

The course I have chosen to audit is ‘Understanding Depression and Low Mood in Young People’ on Future Learn. The course runs over 5 weeks focusing on signs and symptoms of depression, healthy lifestyle factors, treatment options and education for family involvement. I chose to audit this course because a goal of mine is to become a full time teaching instructor in the psychiatric nursing program, making this course relevant to my practice. As someone without previous teaching experience, the course will provide me with an overall concise picture of the important information I should be sharing when I start teaching. I hope by auditing this course, I am able to learn about the different tools that are available to share information making the experience fun and engaging for students. Contrarily, if the course does not turn out to be fun and engaging, then I know what to watch out for and/or enhance in my own practice.